Calbuco volcano erupts: the stratovolcano in southern Chile has erupted twice for the first time since 1972 and the people have been evacuated from the area. It is the first eruption of the stratovolcano in 43 years; it results in a huge ash cloud over a mountainous area in the south of Chile.
The amazing footage from the area shows a huge column of lava and ash being sent several kilometers into the air.
Video: Chile’s Calbuco Volcano erupts
Last erupted in 1972, the Calbuco volcano considered one of the top three most potentially dangerous of Chile’s 90 active volcanoes. It has had at least 10 eruptions since 1837. The most recent eruption was on April 22, 2015.
The volcanic mountain was quiet until tremors began late in the afternoon on April 22, 2015. An explosive pyroclastic eruption started at 6:04 p.m. local time (21:04 Universal Time) and vigorously spewed ash and pumice for at least 90 minutes. Lava flows were observed from the main vent. A second high-energy pulse of ash occurred around 1 a.m. on April 23
The authorities have declared a red alert and evacuated more than 4,000 people within a 20 km (12 miles) radius.
The eruption also caused airline flight cancellations and evacuation of the surrounding countryside. A flow of lava was reported into Chapo Lake (a lake of Chile located in Los Lagos Region, it lies immediately southeast of Calbuco volcano and south of Llanquihue National Reserve) on the same day.
The Chilean administration, which had faced two major catastrophes the
Calbuco volcano is a stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash.
Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed craters called calderas.
The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica (as in rhyolite, dacite, or andesite), with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma.
Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called “composite volcanoes” because of their composite layered structure built up from sequential outpourings of eruptive materials. They are among the most common types of volcanoes, in contrast to the less common shield volcanoes.
Two famous stratovolcanoes are Krakatoa, best known for its catastrophic eruption in 1883, and Vesuvius, famous for its destruction of the towns Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD. Both eruptions claimed thousands of lives.
The existence of stratovolcanoes has not been proved on other terrestrial bodies of the solar system with one exception. Their existence was suggested for some isolated massifs on Mars, e.g., Zephyria Tholus.
- Calbuco (volcano) on Wikipedia
- Stratovolcano on Wikipedia
- “Calbuco Volcano Erupts” on the NASA Earth Observatory website
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