The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) celebrates 50 years of spacewalking, or Extravehicular Activity (EVA) with a slogan: “#SuitUp”. The United States government agency, which responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research, will be celebrating accomplishments throughout the year 2015.
The announcement from NASA:
“Throughout the year, we will be celebrating accomplishments like these with a look towards the future. Specifically, how spacewalking enhances our exploration capabilities and enables humans to go deeper into the solar system in part by suiting up! Two important dates to remember are March 18, the anniversary of the first spacewalk by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov who left his Voskhod-2 vehicle for a 12-minute tethered walk, and June 3, when NASA’s Ed White exited his Gemini-4 capsule using a hand-held oxygen jet gun to push himself from the hatch for a 23-minute tethered spacewalk. So, #SuitUp with us throughout the year and join us for the #JourneytoMars.”
What is Spacewalking or Extravehicular activity (EVA)?
Spacewalking or Extravehicular activity (EVA) is
The first skywalker (or spacewalker) was the Soviet cosmonaut Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov. He became the first human to conduct spacewalking or extra-vehicular activity (EVA) on March 18, 1965; exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for a 12-minute spacewalk.
On June 3, 1965, Edward Higgins White became the first American to “walk” in space. His Extravehicular Activity (EVA) time was 36-minute with the Gemini-4 mission.
The first woman to perform a spacewalk was the Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya: on July 25, 1984, she conducted an EVA outside the Salyut 7 space station for 3 hours 35 minutes during which she cut and welded metals in space along with her colleague Vladimir Dzhanibekov. She was also the second woman in space some 19 years after the Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.
The first American woman to walk in space was Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan, her EVA time was 3 hours 29 minutes during Space Shuttle Challenger mission STS-41-G on October 11, 1984. They operated a system designed to show that a satellite could be refueled in orbit.
The longest spacewalk was performed in 2001 by the NASA astronauts James Voss and Susan Helms. Voss and Helms prepared Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 for repositioning from Unity’s Earth-facing berth to the port-side berth to make room for Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. They also removed a Lab Cradle Assembly from Discovery’s payload bay and installed it on the side of Destiny, and installed a cable tray to Destiny for later use by the station’s robot arm (Canadarm2). After re-entering the shuttle’s airlock, Voss and Helms remained ready to assist if any troubles installing the docking port were encountered by the crew inside the shuttle.
The record of cumulative spacewalk time currently held by Anatoly Solovyev of the Russian Federal Space Agency, with 82:22 hours from 16 EVAs, followed by NASA’s Michael Lopez-Alegria with 67:40 hours in 10 EVAs.