The tiger (Panthera tigris) is probably one of the most exotic and beautiful animals in the world. It is one of the five species classified in the genus Panthera, others being the lion, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopardNotes 1. Here are twenty amazing tiger facts.
- Tiger is the largest cat speciesNotes 2. And as a result, it has the strongest bite force in all felidae, and has the second strongest bite force of all carnivore land mammals, after the polar bear. In the tiger subspecies, the Siberian tiger (also called Amur tiger) is considered the biggest. But, in the wild, some Bengal tigers have proven to be larger than any recorded Siberian tiger. According to the Guinness Book of World Records names the male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) as a biggest cat in overall. They averages 3.15 m (10 ft 4 in) in length from the nose to the tip of the extended tail, stands 99-107 cm (39 in-42 in) at the shoulder and weighs about 265 kg (580 lb). But the record-breaker is a Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris) shot in northern Uttar Pradesh, India in November 1967. It was measured 3.22 m (10 ft 6 in) between pegs (3.37 m or 11 ft 1 in over the curves) and weighed 389 kg (857 lb).
- Unlike many felids, tigers are strong swimmers. They often deliberately bathe in ponds, lakes and rivers. They have been seen crossing rivers up to 7 km (4.3 mi) across and swimming up to 29 km (18 mi) in a day. They are even able to carry prey through or capture it in the water. Among the big cats, only the jaguar, the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas and the third biggest cat in the world, shares a similar fondness for water.
- The hind legs of tigers are extremely powerful. A fully-grown tiger can leap over 8 meters (26 feet) and jump up to 5 meters (16 feet) vertically. See the famous video below which a tiger attacks a man who riding an elephant in India. Note that the tiger was directly attacking the man on the elephant but not the elephant itself. The tiger knew the man was a threat and clearly distinguishes him from the elephant – which is an indicator of the amazing intelligence of tigers.
- The word panther derives from classical Latin panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ). The Greek pan- (πάν), meaning “all”, and thēr (θήρ), meaning “prey” bears the meaning of “predator of all animals”. In Mesopotamia, where now extinct Caspian tiger lived, there’s a river named “Tigris”, which is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. Perhaps, the tiger’s name is coming from that river. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties itself into the Persian Gulf. Some sources also points out that the original source of the word may have been the Persian tigra, meaning pointed or sharp and the Avestan tigrhi meaning an arrow, perhaps referring to the speed of tiger.
- Contrary to the common belief, tigers don’t live in Africa. Today, they are found only in parts of South and Southeast Asia, and some pockets in Eastern Russia (Siberian taiga) and China. But, once, they roamed widely across eastern Eurasia, from the Black Sea in the west, to the Indian Ocean in the south, and from Kolyma to Sumatra in the east and were even found in Turkey (Anatolia). Unfortunately, over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range. Today, the global population in the wild is estimated between 3,062 and 3,948 individuals. Around 100,000 tigers were living in the world at the start of the 20th century. But, in 2016, the WWF Notes 3 declared that the world’s count of wild tigers has risen for the first time in a century.
- Tiger canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of up to 90 mm (3.5 in).
- An adult tiger can go for up to two weeks without eating. Then consume anywhere from 15-40 kg (33-88 pounds) of meat at one sitting. In captivity, adult tigers are fed 3 to 6 kg (6.6 to 13.2 lb) of meat a day.
- Tigers are territorial and generally solitary, but in the same time social animals. They usually avoid each other, but, they are not always territorial and relationships between individuals can be complex. An adult of either sex will sometimes share its kill with others, even those who may not be related to them. Once, the German-born American mammalogist, biologist, conservationist and author George Schaller observed a male share a kill with two females and four cubs. What’s more, unlike male lions, male tigers allow females and cubs to feed on the kill before the male is finished with it.
- A tiger’s roar can be heard at up to 3 km (1.9 mi) away.
- Like all cats, tigers sleep a lot – up to 18 hours in a day.
- Similar to the sandpaper tongue of a domestic house cat, the tongue of a tiger is equipped with sharp barbs. But, naturally, their tongue is much more tougher. The barbs allow a tiger to groom and lick the fur off its prey.
- There was a female Bengal tiger named Champawat Tiger, which was responsible for an estimated 436 deaths in Nepal and the Kumaon area of India, mostly during the 19th century. Her attacks have been listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the highest number of fatalities from a tiger. She was shot in 1907.
- A tiger can run as fast as 35 mph (56 km/h), but only for short distances. Most of their prey can outrun them, especially deer and antelope. That’s why tigers are ambush predators.
- They have striped fur but also striped skin, and no two tigers have the exact same pattern.
- In 1951, one single white tiger cub was found in the wild and taken by a hunter who killed his mother and normal colored siblings. He was named Mohan and is the progenitor of most white tigers now in captivity. Today, white tigers live only in captivity as the white coat is only produced through severe inbreeding. They have brown stripes and crystal blue eyes, and some specimens in captivity have no stripes at all. According to Indian naturalist and conservationist Kailash Sankhala aka “tiger man” (30 January 1925 – 15 August 1994), the last white tiger ever seen in the wild was shot in 1958. Mohan died in 1970 aged 20.
- Black tigers have been reported, but only a single pelt from illegal traders remains the only evidence. The pelt shows that the black only occurs on the top of the head and back, but turns into stripes down the sides, unlike in other cats that are completely and truly black (or melanistic). Unconfirmed historical records also exist, from 1772 to as recent as 2014.Notes 4
- The largest tiger subspecies ever lived on Earth was now extinct Ngandong tiger (Panthera tigris soloensis). They lived in what is now the Sundaland region of Indonesia during the Pleistocene epoch. Contrary to the popular belief, modern tigers did not descend from prehistoric saber-tooth tigers. In fact, the two are not closely related.
- Like all felines, tigers cannot taste sweet and also they are hypercarnivores, which means they live exclusively on meat.
- Your house cat is actually a small tiger! According to a 2013 studyNotes 5, domestic house cat shares about 95.6% of its DNA with tigers, from which they diverged on the evolutionary tree about 10.8 million years ago.
- Unlike your domestic cat, tigers cannot purr. The largest cats that can purr are cougars (also called pumas, mountain lions, catamounts, Florida panthers, painters, ghost cats, etc). That’s why cougars are considered part of the lesser/small cat classification when it comes to their ability to purr and not roar.
Some Not So-Amazing Tiger Facts
The remaining six tiger subspecies (Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan, Siberian aka the Amur, Sumatran and South China) have been classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). AS always, humans are the cause: nearly 50% of tiger cubs die before they reach one year old, often because their mothers have been shot. Today, there are as many tigers living either in zoos or wildlife parks as there are in the wild. Tigers has been (and is still) widely hunted throughout its range for sport, for the fur trade, and for the traditional Asian medicine market.
South China tiger is the most critically endangered subspecies of tiger, and one of the 10 most endangered animals in the world. In 1960, over 4,000 South China tigers were living in China. Today, there are fewer than 20 left in the wild and just 60 in zoos. They were hunted to near extinction because the Chinese government declared they were “pests”.
Siberian tigers also critically endangered. Despite conservation efforts, it could become extinct in the wild in the next ten years.
Bali tiger, Caspian tiger and Javan tiger became extinct in the 20th century. They were were hunted to extinction.
- Results of genetic analysis indicate that the beautiful snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) assessors in 2008.
- Tiger is the largest cat species, but the largest living cat is not a tiger, it is a liger named Hercules.
- The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
- According to some Indian news web sites, on July 28, 2014, at Nandankanan zoo, four cubs born to a white tigress at and one of them was black. But, despite it was in 2014, they deliver no photo of the cub. So, it’s good to take their claim with a pinch of salt. The photos you get when you google “black tiger cub” are not belong to a black tiger cub at all. They are all the photos of the same cute black Amur leopard cub.
- The research, published on Nature Communications, and originally titled “The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes” was led by scientists in South Korea, in collaboration with colleagues in China, the US, Russia, Namibia, South Africa, The Netherlands, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, India and Mongolia.
- Tiger on wikipedia
- Tiger Facts on Big Cat Rescue web site
- Panthera on wikipedia
- Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores (Ecology)
- Largest feline carnivore on Guinness Book of World Records
- Tigris on wikipedia
- World Wide Fund for Nature on wikipedia
- George Schaller on wikipedia
- 64 Magnificent Facts about Tigers on Fact Retriever
- Do big cats roar or purr, or both? on wildsanctuary.org