Point Nemo – The Spacecraft Graveyard

In the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, there’s a location called “Point Nemo”. It’s not a place that humans live – in fact there is no land there – not an island, not even a small rock. It is actually the remotest place from any human civilization you can find on Earth. It lies at least 2,688 km (1,670 mi) from the nearest land. It is also called as “Oceanic pole of inaccessibility”.Notes 1

Point Nemo, Latin for “no one” is also a reference to Jules Verne’s Captain Nemo, a fictional character who appears in two of Verne’s novels, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870) and The Mysterious Island (1874), and makes a cameo appearance in Verne’s play Journey Through the Impossible (1882). Its remoteness is the reason that NASA calls the point its “spacecraft cemetery”.

Point Nemo, also known as the Oceanic pole of inaccessibility
The location of “Point Nemo” in the South Pacific Ocean

Point Nemo, the place do spacecrafts go when they die

Not only the farthest location from the human civilization, Point Nemo is also “relatively lifeless”. Its location within the South Pacific Gyre blocks nutrients from reaching the area. What’s more, being so far from land ,it gets little nutrient run-off from coastal waters. These are the reasons (of course the most important reason is its remoteness) that NASA chose the location to deposit hundreds of decommissioned spacecrafts: satellites, space stations, etc. The remoteness of Point Nemo lessens the risk of any “dead” spacecraft hitting any inhabited locations upon re-entering the atmosphere. According to Popular Science, space agencies all over the world dumped over 263 spacecraft into the region between 1971 and mid-2016, and the number is continually growing. In the year 2015, the total was just 161.

“Russian objects far outnumber every other space agency when it comes to the Pacific Ocean; there are more than 190 Russian objects alone. The US is next with 52 objects, then Europe with 8, Japan with 6, and finally SpaceX dropped its second stage here in September of 2014.” (Source: Popular Science)

In fact, many smaller satellites don’t end up in Point Nemo. They enter the atmosphere with a velocity of at least a few kilometers/miles per hour. So, the heat from the friction of the air burns up the satellite, like the small meteorites which never reach the Earth’s surface.

Tiangong-1

But exceptions do occur. China’s out-of-control space station, Tiangong-1, will crash into the Earth in the next few months, and no one knows where. Not into the Point Nemo, almost certainly.

Tiangong-1 launched on 29 September 2011, and its operational life cycle was predicted at two years. On 21 March 2016, after a lifespan extended by two years, the Space Engineering Office of China announced that Tiangong-1 had officially ended its service. The officials went on to state that the telemetry link with Tiangong-1 had been lost. But, a couple of months later, amateur satellite trackers watching Tiangong-1 found that China’s space agency had lost control of the station. In September, after conceding they had lost control over the station, officials announced that the station would re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere late in 2017.

Artist's illustration of China's Tiangong-1 space station
Artist’s illustration of China’s Tiangong-1 space station. Means literally “Heavenly Palace 1” in English, the 8.5-tonne spacecraft was China’s first prototype space station.

But, Harvard astrophysicist Jonathan McDowell, among others, has noted that parts of the craft such as the rocket engines are probably too dense to be burnt up upon re-entry and may result in chunks of debris up 100 kg in weight falling to the Earth’s surface.

The 8.5-tonne spacecraft, or at least what remains of it, is currently expected to deorbit and crash back on Earth some time between December 2017 and March 2018. But, there’s no need to panic: the risk is quite low that people on Earth will be in danger. Since two-thirds of Earth’s surface is covered by water, any remaining debris that doesn’t burn up in the atmosphere has a high chance of falling into an ocean. In fact, in every few year, uncontrolled spacecrafts of this size enter the Earth’s atmosphere. For example, the 5,900-kilogram (13,000 lb) NASA-operated orbital observatory Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) decommissioned and re-entered Earth’s atmosphere on 24 September 2011. It ultimately impacted in a remote area of the Pacific Ocean. Some decommissioned spacecrafts has returned so remotely that there was no visual evidence of their fall. So, the headlines of tabloid papers about Tiangong-1 crash are just sensational.

Point Nemo Location

The coordinates of Point Nemo are: 48°52’36.0″S 123°23’36.0″W (48 degrees 52 minutes 36 seconds south latitude and 123 degrees 23 minutes 36 seconds west longitude)

The location of Point Nemo (or the Oceanic pole of inaccessibility) on Google Maps.

Notes

  1. A pole of inaccessibility often refers to the most distant point from the coastline, implying a maximum degree of continentality. For example, the northern pole of inaccessibility, sometimes known as the Arctic pole of inaccessibility, or just Arctic pole, is located on the Arctic Ocean pack ice at a distance farthest from any land mass. It is 1,008 km (626 mi) from the three closest landmasses. The southern pole of inaccessibility is the point on the Antarctic continent most distant from the Southern Ocean. A variety of coordinate locations have been given for this pole. The discrepancies are due to the question of whether the “coast” is measured to the grounding line or to the edges of ice shelves, the difficulty of determining the location of the “solid” coastline, the movement of ice sheets and improvements in the accuracy of survey data over the years, as well as possible topographical errors. It commonly refers to the site of the Soviet Union research station, which was constructed at 82°06’S 54°58’E (though some sources give 83°06’S 54°58’E). This lies 878 km (546 mi) from the South Pole, at an elevation of 3,718 m (12,198 ft). Using different criteria, the Scott Polar Research Institute locates this pole at 85°50’S 65°47’E. According to ThePoles.com, the point farthest from the sea accounting only for the Antarctic land surface proper is at 82°53’14”S 55°4’30”E, and the farthest point when ice sheets are taken into account is 83°50’37”S 65°43’30”E. These points, calculated by the British Antarctic Survey, are quoted as being “the most accurate measure available” (as of 2005). Either way, the southern pole of inaccessibility is far more remote and difficult to reach than the geographic South Pole.

Sources

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