This chart, prepared by NASA illustrates comparisons among the driving distances by various wheeled vehicles on the surface of the planetary bodies other than Earth (as of February 13, 2019, only the Moon and Mars). Opportunity rover, which declared dead after record-breaking 15-years on the Martian surface also holds the off-Earth roving distance record after accruing 45.16 kilometers (28.06 miles) of driving on Mars.
Driving distances of rovers on Mars and the Moon
Yutu (China) – 0.1 km (330 feet) (estimated)
Yutu (literally: “Jade Rabbit”) robotic lunar rover was a part of the Chang’e 3, an uncrewed lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). It was launched at 17:30 UTC on 1 December 2013, and reached the Moon’s surface on 14 December 2013.
The mission marks the first soft landing on the Moon since 1976 (after Luna 24, an uncrewed space mission of the Soviet Union’s Luna programme) and the first rover to operate there since the Soviet Lunokhod 2 ceased operations on 11 May 1973.
The rover encountered operational difficulties toward the end of the second lunar day after surviving and recovering successfully from the first 14-day lunar night.
A lunar day lasts 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes. And this is the same time it takes for the Moon to orbit around the Earth. Because the moon is tidally locked with the Earth, that’s the reason why we can see only one side of it.
With respect to the background stars, however, the Moon only takes 27 days and 7 hours for the sky to completely rotate back to its original position (a sidereal moon day).
It was unable to move after the end of the second lunar night, though it continued to gather useful information for some months afterward. In October 2015, Yutu set the record for the longest operational period for a rover on the Moon.
On 31 July 2016, Yutu ceased to operate after a total of 31 months, well beyond its original expected lifespan of three months.
Sojourner (NASA) – 0.1 km (330 feet)
Mars Pathfinder was designed to be a demonstration of the technology necessary to deliver a lander and a free-ranging robotic rover to the surface of Mars in a cost-effective and efficient manner.
The lander was formally named the Carl Sagan Memorial Station following its successful touchdown, and the rover, named Sojourner after American civil rights crusader Sojourner Truth, both outlived their design lives – the lander by nearly three times, and the rover by 12 times.
Sojourner was the first rover on Mars. It has traveled a distance of just over 100 meters (330 feet) by the time communication was lost.
Yutu-2 (China) – More than 1 km (3,280 feet)
Yutu-2 is a part of China’s Chang’e 4 mission, which landed on the far side of the Moon on January 3, 2019. It was a feat no nation or space agency (including NASA) has accomplished until now.
It is solar-powered, RHU-heated (Radioisotope Heater Unit, a small device that provides heat through radioactive decay), and propelled by six wheels. The rover’s nominal operating time is three months, but after the experience with the Yutu rover in 2013, the rover design was improved and Chinese engineers are hopeful it will operate for a few years.
Spirit (NASA) – 7.73 km (4.8 mi)
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010. It was one of two rovers of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Mission (the other was Opportunity).
It landed successfully on Mars on January 4, 2004. Its twin, Opportunity (MER-B), landed on the other side of the planet three weeks later.
Spirit far outlasted her planned 90-day mission. It also logged 7.73 km (4.8 mi) of driving instead of the planned 600 meters (0.4 mi), allowing more extensive geological analysis of Martian rocks and planetary surface features.
Among her myriad discoveries, Spirit found evidence that Mars was once much wetter than it is today and helped scientists better understand the Martian wind.
In May 2009, the rover became embedded in soft soil at a site called “Troy” with only five working wheels to aid in the rescue effort. After months of testing and carefully planned maneuvers, NASA ended efforts to free the rover and eventually ended the mission on May 25, 2011.
Lunokhod 1 (USSR) – 10.54 km (6.55 mi)
Lunokhod 1 (moonwalker 1 in Russian) was the first of two uncrewed lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program. In 1970, it became the first remote-controlled robot “rover” to freely move across the surface of an astronomical object beyond the Earth (Lunokhod 0 was launched in February 1969 but failed to reach orbit).
Although only designed for a lifetime of three lunar days, Lunokhod-1 operated on the lunar surface for 321 days between November 17, 1970, and September 14, 1971 (eleven lunar days) and traversed a total distance of 10.54 km (6.55 miles). Lunokhod 1 used eight rigid-rim wire mesh wheels with bicycle-type spokes and metal cleats for traction. Each of the eight wheels was independently powered. Image courtesy: Serguei Matrossov.
Related: 50th anniversary of Lunokhod 1
Curiosity (NASA) – 20.4 km (12.68 mi)
Part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission, Curiosity is the largest and most capable rover ever sent to Mars. It launched on November 26, 2011, and landed on Mars at 10:32 p.m. PDT on Aug. 5, 2012 (1:32 a.m. EDT on Aug. 6, 2012).
Curiosity set out to answer the question: Did Mars ever have the right environmental conditions to support small life forms called microbes? Early in its mission, Curiosity’s scientific tools found chemical and mineral evidence of past habitable environments on Mars. It continues to explore the rock record from a time when Mars could have been home to microbial life.
Related: How NASA Reinvented The Wheel
Curiosity is more mobile than any previous rover
Curiosity is a big, car-sized rover with a dry mass of 899 kg (1,982 lb). It is fit to climb over knee-high obstacles and travels about 100 feet (30 meters) per hour, depending on instrument activity, the terrain, and the visibility its cameras have of the path ahead.
The rover carries a radioisotope power system that generates electricity from the heat of plutonium’s radioactive decay. This electrical power source has already far exceeded its required operating lifespan on Mars’ surface of at least one full Martian year (687 Earth days).
The generator provides greater mobility and flexibility in operating the rover regardless of season or sunlight. The steady flow of electrical power has enhanced the science payload capability and permitted consideration of landing sites at a greater range of latitudes than was possible on previous rovers.
Apollo 16 Lunar Rover (NASA) – 27.1 km (16.8 mi)
Crewed by Commander John Young, Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke, and Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly, Apollo 16 was the tenth crewed mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
It was launched on April 16, 1972, the mission lasted 11 days, 1 hour, and 51 minutes, and concluded on April 27.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was an electric vehicle designed to operate in the low-gravity vacuum of the Moon and to be capable of traversing the lunar surface, allowing the Apollo astronauts to extend the range of their surface extravehicular activities.
Three LRVs were driven on the Moon, one on Apollo 15 by astronauts David Scott and Jim Irwin, one on Apollo 16 by John Young and Charles Duke, and one on Apollo 17 by Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.
On Apollo 16 the vehicle traversed 26.7 km (16.8 mi) in 3 hours, and 26 minutes of total driving time. The longest of the three traverses was 11.6 km (7.2 mi) and the LRV reached a maximum distance of 4.5 km (2.8 mi) from the Lunar Module.
Related: Moon landing videos remastered
Apollo 15 Lunar Rover (NASA) – 27.8 km (17.3 mi)
Apollo 15 was the ninth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, the eighth to be successful, and the fourth to land on the Moon.
It was crewed by David R. Scott (Commander), Alfred M. Worden (Command Module Pilot, CMP), and James B. Irwin (Lunar Module Pilot, LMP).
The mission began on July 26, 1971, and ended on August 7, the lunar surface exploration taking place between July 30 and August 2.
On Apollo 15 the Lunar Roving Vehicle traversed 27.8 km (17.3 mi) in 3 hours, 2 minutes of total driving time. The longest of the three traverses was 12.5 km (7.8 mi) and the LRV reached a maximum distance of 5 km (3.1 mi) from the Lunar Module.
Apollo 17 Lunar Rover (NASA) – 35.74 km (22.2 mi)
Launched on December 7, 1972, with a crew made up of Eugene Cernan (Commander), Ronald Evans (Command Module Pilot, CMP), and Harrison Schmitt (Lunar Module Pilot, LMP), Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA’s Apollo program and the last mission in which humans traveled to and walked on the Moon.
Cernan, Evans, and Schmitt returned to Earth on December 19 after a 12-day mission.
On Apollo 17 the Lunar Roving Vehicle traversed 35.74 km (22.2 mi) in 4 hours, and 26 minutes of total driving time. The longest of the three traverses was 20.1 km (12.5 mi) and the LRV reached a maximum distance of 7.6 km (4.7 mi) from the Lunar Module.
Astronaut Gene Cernan reached 18 km/h (11.2 mph) on the lunar valley named Taurus-Littrow, setting an unofficial lunar land speed record that still stands to this day.
Lunokhod 2 (USSR) – 39 km (24.23 mi)
Soviet Union’s Luna 21 spacecraft landed on the Moon and deployed the second Soviet lunar rover, Lunokhod 2, in January 1973.
The rover stood 135 cm high and had a mass of 840 kg. It was about 170 cm long and 160 cm wide and had 8 wheels, each with an independent suspension, motor, and brake. The rover had two speeds, ~1 km/h and ~2 km/h.
Lunokhod 2 was equipped with three TV cameras, one mounted high on the rover for navigation, which could return high-resolution images at different rates (3.2, 5.7, 10.9, or 21.1 seconds per frame). These images were used by a five-man team of controllers on Earth who sent driving commands to the rover in real-time.
Power was supplied by a solar panel on the inside of a round hinged lid that covered the instrument bay, which would charge the batteries when opened. A polonium-210 isotopic heat source was used to keep the rover warm during the lunar nights. There were 4 panoramic cameras mounted on the rover.
Scientific instruments included a soil mechanics tester, a solar X-ray experiment, an astrophotometer to measure visible and UV light levels, a magnetometer deployed in front of the rover on the end of a 2.5 m boom, a radiometer, a photodetector (Rubin-1) for laser detection experiments, and a French-supplied laser corner-reflector. The lander and rover together weighed 1814 kg.
Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km of terrain including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures. Many mechanical tests of the surface, laser ranging measurements, and other experiments were completed during this time.
On June 4 it was announced that the program was completed, leading to speculation that the vehicle probably failed in mid-May or could not be revived after the lunar night of May-June.
The Lunokhod laser retroreflector is still used by Earth-based stations for laser ranging, Lunokhod 2 is located at 25.8323 N, 30.9221 E.
Opportunity (NASA) – 45.16 km (28.06 mi)
As of February 2019, NASA’s Opportunity Mars rover holds the “out-of-this-world” driving distance record. On July 28, 2014, it was announced that Opportunity, having traversed over 40 km (25 mi), had become the rover achieving the longest off-world distance, surpassing the previous record of 39 km (24 mi) on the Moon by the Soviet Union’s Lunokhod 2.
On March 24, 2015, NASA celebrated Opportunity having traveled the distance of a marathon race, 42.195 kilometers (26.219 mi), from the start of Opportunity’s landing and traveling on Mars.
By June 10, 2018, when it last contacted NASA, the rover had traveled a distance of 45.16 kilometers (28.06 miles).
Opportunity was launched on July 7, 2003, 28 days after its twin, Spirit, which launched on June 10, 2003, as part of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover program. It landed in Meridiani Planum, a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars’s equator on January 25, 2004, three weeks after Spirit touched down on the other side of the planet. Both rovers had a planned 90-sol (Martian day) duration of activity (slightly more than 90 earth days).
Spirit functioned until getting stuck in 2009 and ceased communications in 2010, while Opportunity was able to stay operational for 5353 sols after landing.
By June 10, 2018, when it last contacted NASA and sent its last photo to Earth, which shows the intensity of the dust storm, Opportunity had exceeded its operating plan by 14 years, 295 days (in Earth Time), which is 55 times its designed lifespan.
- “Driving Distances on Mars and the Moon” on the NASA Mars website
- Moon Landing on Wikipedia
- Opportunity Rover on Wikipedia
- Yutu (rover) on Wikipedia
- Chang’e 4 on Wikipedia
- Sojourner (rover) on Wikipedia
- Mars Pathfinder mission page on the NASA website
- Spirit (rover) on Wikipedia
- Mars Exploration Rover – Spirit on NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory website
- Lunokhod 1 on Wikipedia
- Curiosity Mission Overview on the NASA Mars website
- Apollo 16 on Wikipedia
- “The Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle” on the NASA website
- Apollo 15 on Wikipedia
- Apollo 17 on Wikipedia
- Lunokhod 2 on Wikipedia
- Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 on the NASA website
- Opportunity landed on Mars on January 25, 2004 - January 25, 2023
- The first Uranus flyby was performed by Voyager 2 on January 24, 1986 - January 24, 2023
- Neptune became the outermost planet on January 21, 1979 - January 21, 2023